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quetzalcoatl and xolotl

His ashes rose into the sky and then his heart followed, becoming the morning star (see Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli).[27]. [8] Xolotl is able to help in the Sun's rebirth since he possesses the power to enter and exit the underworld. In one version of a particularly well-known myth, that of the creation of mankind, Quetzalcoatl and his twin travel to Mictlan, the Aztec underworld, to retrieve the bones of the dead so that humans can be created. Historians debate to what degree, or whether at all, these narratives about this legendary Toltec ruler describe historical events. ", "Method and Skepticism (and Quetzalcoatl...)", "Quetzalcoatl, the Maya maize god and Jesus Christ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quetzalcoatl&oldid=1001694940, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles having same image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2012, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2020, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with Nahuatl languages-collective sources (nah), Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 21:46. Eduard Selerassociates Xolotl's portrayal as a dog with the belief that dogs accompany the souls of the dead to Mictlan. (Restall 2001 p. 114)[full citation needed]. The legend of Quetzalcoatl is spoofed in the Adult Swim CGI series Xavier: Renegade Angel. This confederacy engaged in almost seventy-five years of nearly continuous conflict with the Aztec Empire of the Triple Alliance until the arrival of Cortés. But the history of the former has been handed down to us through an impure Lamanitish source, which has sadly disfigured and perverted the original incidents and teachings of the Savior's life and ministry. Quetzalcoatl is a character in Onyx Equinox. He was also god of twins, monsters, misfortune, sickness, and deformities. In the post-classic Nahua civilization of central Mexico (Aztec), the worship of Quetzalcoatl was ubiquitous. Xolotl is a nigh-omnipotent entity, being an ancient deity, his sphere of influence being such things as monsters, disease, deformities, the underworld and darkness - as the twin of Quetzalcoatl he is a dark mirror of creation itself. Other articles where Xolotl is discussed: Quetzalcóatl: With his companion Xolotl, a dog-headed god, he was said to have descended to the underground hell of Mictlan to gather the bones of the ancient dead. For example, in the Codex Mendoza we see him playing with the moon-god, and can recognize him by the sign ollin which accompanies him, and by the gouged-out eye in which that symbol ends. Quetzalcoatl and His spirit twin, Xolotl, the god with the serious face of a great hound, said, “I am Xolotl, the Evening Star. Xolotl, the Twin, the Shapeshifter, Venus as the Evening Star, the Lord of the West, Double of Quetzalcoatl. [9] Furthermore, early Spanish sources written by clerics tend to identify the god-ruler Quetzalcoatl of these narratives with either Hernán Cortés or Thomas the Apostle—identifications which have also become sources of a diversity of opinions about the nature of Quetzalcoatl.[10]. Xolotl was the sinister god of monstrosities who wears the spirally-twisted wind jewel and the ear ornaments of Quetzalcoatl. As the morning star, he was known by the title Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, meaning "lord of the star of the dawn". In Aztec culture, depictions of Quetzalcoatl were fully anthropomorphic. He gathered up the pieces and took them to the earth goddess Cihuacoatl (Snake … His birth, along with his twin Xolotl, was unusual; it was a virgin birth, to the goddess Coatlicue. [7] Quetzalcoatl /ˌkɛtsælkoʊˈɑːtəl/ is a deity in Aztec culture and literature whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "Precious serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent". [11] Their main duty was to help their owners cross a deep river. You have graciously arrived, you have known pain, you have known weariness, now come on earth, take your rest, enter into your palace, rest your limbs; may our lords come on earth. Quetzalcoatl is not a religious symbol in the Latter-day Saint faith, and is not taught as such, nor is it in their doctrine that Quetzalcoatl is Jesus. A particularly ugly one too. The feathered serpent was furthermore connected to the planet Venus because of this planet's importance as a sign of the beginning of the rainy season. Quetzalcoatl as the morning star acts as the harbinger of the Sun's rising (rebirth) every dawn , Xolotl as the evening star acts as the harbinger of the Sun's setting (death) every dusk . [8], In manuscripts the setting sun, devoured by the earth, is opposite Xolotl's image. [18] Historian Enrique Florescano also analyzing Teotihuacan iconography argues that the Feathered Serpent was part of a triad of agricultural deities: the Goddess of the Cave symbolizing motherhood, reproduction and life, Tlaloc, god of rain, lightning and thunder and the feathered serpent, god of vegetational renewal. In the episode "Damnesia You," Xavier winds up in the Aztec world and is immediately (and unsuccessfully) sacrificed for insulting the Sun God, and during the sacrifice the Aztecs humorously fail to pronounce his name. Over time, Quetzalcoatl's appearance, clothing, malevolent nature, and status among the gods were reshaped to fit a more Christian framework. "Atl" for water and "Xolotl" for dog. [8] The syphilitic god Nanahuatzin is an avatar of Xolotl. In the example from Yaxchilan, the Vision Serpent has the human face of the young maize god, further suggesting a connection to fertility and vegetational renewal; the Maya Young Maize god was also connected to Venus. [17], Eduard Seler associates Xolotl's portrayal as a dog with the belief that dogs accompany the souls of the dead to Mictlan. Franciscans then equated the original Quetzalcoatl with Thomas and imagined that the Indians had long-awaited his return to take part once again in God's kingdom. And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca, known by no other name than Tezcatlipoca, the god of judgment, night, deceit, sorcery and the Earth. Much of the idea of Cortés being seen as a deity can be traced back to the Florentine Codex written down some 50 years after the conquest. The Aztec god Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis (16th century). Seler speculates that Xolotl represents the murdered twin who dwells in the darkness of Mictlan, while Quetzalcoatl ("The Precious Twin") represents the surviving twin who dwells in the light of the sun. [21] Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl constitute the twin phases of Venus as the morning and evening star, respectively. The god in the shape of dog, called Xólotl, was the dedication of Quetzalcóatl to the symbol of Venus, as evening star. Among the Aztecs, whose beliefs are the best-documented in the historical sources, Quetzalcoatl was related to gods of the wind, of the planet Venus, of the dawn, of merchants and of arts, crafts and knowledge. Xolotl accompanied Quetzalcoatl to "[15], Quetzalcoatl was also linked to rulership and priestly office; additionally, among the Toltec, it was used as a military title and emblem.[16]. Some scholars argue the ballgame symbolizes the Sun's perilous and uncertain nighttime journey through the underworld. Xolotl withdrew from this sacrifice and wept so much his eyes fell out of their sockets. (Many academics conclude this passage implies incest.) The next morning, Quetzalcoatl, feeling shame and regret, had his servants build him a stone chest, adorn him in turquoise, and then, laying in the chest, set himself on fire. Xolotl is the dog-like deity, often depicted with ragged ears. [1] He was also god of twins, monsters, misfortune, sickness, and deformities. Seler characterizes Nanahuatzin ("Little Pustule Covered One"), who is deformed by syphilis, as an aspect of Xolotl in his capacity as god of monsters, deforming diseases, and deformities. Quetzalcoatl's name can also be translated as "precious twin," and in some myths, he had a twin brother named Xolotl, who had a human body and the head of a dog or of an ocelot, a spotted wildcat. However, a majority of Mesoamericanist scholars, such as Matthew Restall (2003, 2018[33]), James Lockhart (1994), Susan D. Gillespie (1989), Camilla Townsend (2003a, 2003b), Louise Burkhart, Michel Graulich and Michael E. Smith (2003), among others, consider the "Quetzalcoatl/Cortés myth" as one of many myths about the Spanish conquest which have risen in the early post-conquest period. The earthly dog was created from these same bones, and presented to mankind as a gift from the gods. Animals thought to represent Quetzalcoatl include resplendent quetzals, rattlesnakes (coatl meaning "serpent" in Nahuatl), crows, and macaws. People also frequently paired him with the Quetzalcoatl in various sacred texts and books. Over the East presides the Red Tezcatlipoca, Xipe Totec, the god of gold, farming and springtime. Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec god of wind, air, and learning, wears around his neck the "wind breastplate" ehēcacōzcatl, "the spirally voluted wind jewel" made of a conch shell. info)), in honorific form: Quetzalcōātzin) is a deity in Aztec culture and literature whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "Precious serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent". Quetzalcoatl—he was the wind, the guide and road sweeper of the rain gods, of the masters of the water, of those who brought rain. As a double of Quetzalcoatl, he carries his conch-like ehecailacacozcatl or wind jewel. Every night, I lead the Sun down to Mictlán to die. Subtleties in, and an imperfect scholarly understanding of, high Nahuatl rhetorical style make the exact intent of these comments tricky to ascertain, but Restall argues that Moctezuma's politely offering his throne to Cortés (if indeed he did ever give the speech as reported) may well have been meant as the exact opposite of what it was taken to mean: politeness in Aztec culture was a way to assert dominance and show superiority. Other parties have also promulgated the idea that the Mesoamericans believed the conquistadors, and in particular Cortés, to be awaited gods: most notably the historians of the Franciscan order such as Fray Gerónimo de Mendieta. In typical Mesoamerican duality, Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli was imagined as both and as the twin brother of Xolotl, and thus, above all, he represented the morning star … [12] In his form as the morning star, Venus, he is also depicted as a harpy eagle. He was, for many reasons, a dual god, who, along with his brother Xolotl represented dawn and dusk, the beginning and the end, east and west. The story of the life of the Mexican divinity, Quetzalcoatl, closely resembles that of the Savior; so closely, indeed, that we can come to no other conclusion than that Quetzalcoatl and Christ are the same being. I know the way to the Land of the Dead and will guide us there.” He also had anthropomorphic forms, for example in his aspects as Ehecatl the wind god. Quetzalcoatl’s twin, Xolotl, was a god associated with death. Xolotl was also the god of fire and lighting, sickness and deformities. Latter-day Saint author Brant Gardner, after investigating the link between Quetzalcoatl and Jesus, concluded that the association amounts to nothing more than folklore. Xolotl is thus a master transformer. [22], According to another version of the myth, Quetzalcoatl is one of the four sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, the four Tezcatlipocas, each of whom presides over one of the four cardinal directions. [13], In the Aztec calendar, the ruler of the day, Itzcuintli ("Dog"), is Mictlantecuhtli, the god of death and lord of Mictlan, the afterlife. As a double of Quetzalcoatl, he carries his conch-like ehecailacacozcatl or wind jewel. [5] That period lies within the Late Preclassic to Early Classic period (400 BC – 600 AD) of Mesoamerican chronology; veneration of the figure appears to have spread throughout Mesoamerica by the Late Classic period (600–900 AD).[6]. Considered by some to be Quetzalcoatl’s double, assistant or twin, Xolotl aided Quetzalcoatl when he descended to the Mictlan to recover the bones of humankind.

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